3 Types of Batik Based on Its Technique

Batik is one of Indonesia’s traditional crafts that has been worldwide. The art of Batik is generally done on a piece of cloth using a special wax. There are three types of Batik based on the making technique.

The images produced from the batik technique are also very diverse, according to the characteristics of the area of ‚Äč‚Äčorigin. The philosophical meaning of batik motifs is also powerful and thick with customs, especially for the Javanese people.

Quoting from the Encyclopedia of Batik and Ornamental Fabrics of the Archipelago, the word batik comes from a combination of two words in Javanese, namely amba and dots.

“Amba” means cloth, and “Point” gives a pattern to the fabric by using wax media with a dotted motif. Batik art in Indonesia is expanding and has become the people’s property.

Especially the Javanese in the late 18th or early 19th century has types of Batik. UNESCO officially recognized Indonesian Batik by being included in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2009.

The Differences Between 3 Types of Batik

Making Batik Tulis goes through complicated stages and not finding repeated patterns that are done the same way, meaning that even though there are slight differences, for example, several points or curves of lines.

This deficiency is an advantage of handwork because spontaneous movements often occur in this type of batik process, differentiating from stamped Batik.

In addition, for stamped Batik, the basic batik design has been determined in advance, and the patterns are made on a stamp board/printer. In comparison, Batik Tulis is made manually, drawn by hand by craftsmen.

The results are undoubtedly different. Stamped Batik is more patterned and regular but looks stiff, while Batik Tulis is more dynamic because the impression of a more flexible design follows the creations that draw it.

Batik Tulis

Batik Tulis is a traditional batik, and one of 3 types of Batik made manually using a tool called canting. This Batik is made using the most traditional technique, which is drawn or ‘written’ directly by the craftsman’s hands.

Here are five facts about Batik Tulis:

  1. The work of pure batik motifs uses manual equipment and simple batik making, as was done by the craftsmen of Batik Tulis motifs in ancient times.
  2. Batik Tulis has a very natural base color.
  3. Patience is one of the keys to a high-value artistic product. People cannot make one piece of the Batik Tulis motif for mass production. Any work that has not been completed cannot be forwarded to others because it will change the character of the batik-making.
  4. The level of precision of the location of batik motifs, patterns, and diagonal lines cannot be even, all of that because the level of hand accuracy is different from the tool’s accuracy. All of that will create natural motifs and patterns.
  5. Making Batik Tulis uses an artistic spirit that you cannot obtain from anyone. So it takes exceptional learning to become a batik craftsman.

Batik Stamp

Stamped Batik is one of 3 types of Batik made using an iron plate that functions as a stamp to be stamped onto the fabric. Different from hand-drawn Batik, stamped Batik has motifs that tend to be repeated and not so much detail.

Because of the way it is made, which is stamped, if the fabric is reversed, the color and pattern of the material are not the same. The back of the fabric tends to have a lighter or lighter shade.

The processing time for stamped Batik also tends to be much shorter, only taking two to three working days. In terms of price, stamped Batik is much cheaper than Batik Tulis. The manufacturing process is also faster. However, the motifs drawn on it were neater.

Even so, stamped batik motifs create a monotonous impression because they are constantly repeated. Just like hand-drawn Batik, the scent of wax must be left from stamped Batik. Here are some facts about stamped Batik that you need to know:

  1. It has a neat repetition of motifs compared to Batik Tulis because it uses a copper stamp or stamp.
  2. Processing is faster than hand-drawn Batik because the wax application uses a reasonably large stamp.
  3. Motifs and colors can be more diverse than Batik.
  4. The price is lower than Batik Tulis because the process is easier and shorter.
  5. The color of the fabric on the front is lighter or denser, while the back tends to be thinner due to the influence of the manufacturing process.

Batik Print

Because the prestige of Batik is increasing, entrepreneurs see an opportunity to produce batik prints which process and time of manufacture are faster and easier.

No wonder the selling price is also much lower than the price of Batik Tulis and stamped Batik. Batik print is one of 3 types of Batik that is less artistic based on its making process.

Making batik printing uses machines so that it can be mass-produced. The motifs and colors can also be more diverse because a computer can design the design digitally. Here are five facts about batik printing:

  1. The batik print motif is elegant and symmetrical. It can even be said to be perfect.
  2. Has no waxy scent.
  3. The color of Batik is more and more lively. Batik print entrepreneurs can use additional chemical dyes to produce the desired colors.
  4. The price is relatively low, in the range of 50-80 thousand rupiah.
  5. The fabric’s color on the back is white with a bit of color that is see-through from the front.

There are very many batik cloths in the market that are sold at very diverse prices. As a potential customer, you need to understand the difference between the three types of Batik. That way, you can get the product that suits your needs.

Although batik printing has a more diverse variety of motifs and colors, in terms of aesthetics, it is inferior to stamped Batik, let alone Batik Tulis. Even the motifs have a profound meaning. Batik Tulis, in particular, has a solid historical and cultural value.

Batik, a cultural heritage, should be preserved by the younger generation. Learning about the three types of Batik based on how they are made is one of the first steps to keeping them.